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U.S. Army Corps of Engineers photo by David G. Rigg

Ice Harbor Lock and Dam

Ice Harbor Lock and Dam
This congressionally authorized project consists of Ice Harbor Dam, powerhouse, navigation lock, two fish ladders, a removable spillway weir and a juvenile fish bypass facility. It provides navigation, hydroelectric generation, recreation and incidental irrigation.Located upstream of McNary Lock and Dam and Lake Wallula, Ice Harbor Dam is 2,822 feet long with an effective height of 100 feet. It is a concrete gravity type dam, with an earthfill embankment section at the north abutment. It includes a navigation lock with clear dimensions of 86 by 675 feet. The dam has a 10-bay spillway that is 590 feet long and includes ten 50 foot tainter gates.

Project Information

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Authorization
The project was authorized by the River and Harbor Act of 1945.

Progress
Construction of the Ice Harbor Project began in January 1956. Generators one through three were put in operation in December 1961. Powerhouse units four though six were later installed, with all units producing power by January 1976. The entire project including recreational facilities is now complete.

Project
This project consists of Ice Harbor Dam, powerhouse, navigation lock, two fish ladders, a removable spillway weir and a juvenile fish bypass facility. It provides navigation, hydroelectric generation, recreation and incidental irrigation.

Ice Harbor Lock and Dam
Located upstream of McNary Lock and Dam and Lake Wallula, Ice Harbor Dam is 2,822 feet long with an effective height of 100 feet. It is a concrete gravity type dam, with an earthfill embankment section at the north abutment. It includes a navigation lock with clear dimensions of 86 by 675 feet. The dam has a 10-bay spillway that is 590 feet long and includes ten 50 foot tainter gates.

Reservoir
Lake Sacajawea, created by Ice Harbor Dam, extends upstream about 32 miles to Lower Monumental Lock and Dam and has a surface area of 9,200 acres.

Hydropower Generators
The powerhouse has three 90,000-kilowatt units and three 111,000-kilowatt units – 603 megawatt total powerhouse capacity. During fiscal year 2011, 2.49 billion kilowatt hours of electricity were produced.

Navigation Lock
This is a single-lift lock, 86 feet wide by 675 feet long, with a 100 foot vertical lift. In 2009, traffic through the navigation lock consisted of grains, petroleum products, fertilizer, wood products, and miscellaneous cargo that amounted to more than 2.5 million tons.

Fish Passage
Two fish ladders provide adult fish upstream passage through Ice Harbor Lock and Dam. In 2005, a spillway weir was also installed to improve passage conditions for juvenile salmon downstream outmigration. Because of significant declines of Pacific Lamprey throughout its range during the past three decades, in 2009, modifications were made to one Ice Harbor fish ladder to improve adult lamprey passage. Those modifications included a lamprey fish ladder entrance weir, lamprey passage structures, ladder improvements and installation of metal plating to assist lamprey upstream. Researchers are evaluating adult Pacific lamprey passage through the adult fish ladders and are planning more aggressive research and development of improvements for juvenile lamprey passage.

Lands
There are 3,576 acres of project lands surrounding Lake Sacajawea. These project lands include fee lands that are federally-owned and managed by the Corps, as well as easement lands to which the Corps has specific rights or easements (i.e., flowage or access). There are 3,517.30 acres of Corps-managed lands at Ice Harbor used for public recreation, wildlife habitat, wildlife mitigation and water-connected industrial development. The project maintains four habitat management areas, four developed recreation areas and three public access areas. Public boat launching facilities are available at seven locations around the lake. In 2009, Ice Harbor recreation areas hosted 444,441 visitors.

People
More than 80 Walla Walla District employees work at the Ice Harbor Project. They serve as electricians, mechanics, lock operators, welders, riggers, painters, utility workers, heavy equipment operators, park rangers, environmental resource specialists, biologists, administrative support staff, engineers and maintenance workers. Together, they manage the safe and continuous operation of the project.

Budget
During fiscal year 2011, total expenditures were about $11,274,746 for the Ice Harbor Project.

References
Report of the Secretary of the Army on Civil Works Activities, Fiscal Year 2011, Department of the Army Corps of Engineers Extract Report of the Walla Walla District.
General
State - Washington
County - Franklin and Walla Walla
River - Snake
River Mile - 9.7
Drainage area above Ice Harbor Dam - 109,000 square miles
Owner - U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Walla Walla District
Authorized Purposes - Inland Navigation and Power Generation
Other Uses - Fishery and recreation
Type of Project - Run-of-river

Real Estate:
Fee acquisition land above pool elevation 440 - 7,830 acres

Reservoir
Name - Sacajawea
Elevations (Feet Mean Sea Level)
Maximum at dam for spillway design flood - 446.4
Normal operating range gauged at dam - 437 to 440
Length - 31.9 miles
Average width - 0.4 miles
Maximum width - 1.0 miles
Surface area at elevation 440 (low flow-flat pool) - 8,375 acres
Storage between elevation 437 and 440 - 24,900 acre feet

Dam (General)
Powerhouse, overall length - 671 feet
Spillway, total length - 590 feet
Navigation lock, overall width - 173 feet
Concrete non-overflow sections:
Navigation lock to spillway (length) - 154 feet
Spillway to powerhouse (length) - 40 feet
Powerhouse to south shore embankment (length) - 560 feet
Earth embankment, north shore (length) - 624 feet
Total length of dam - 2,822 feet
Maximum height of concrete sections (foundations deck) - 213 feet
Maximum height of abutment section (north shore foundation to top) - 123 feet
Deck elevation - 453 feet msl

Spillway
Type - Ogee, concrete, gravity, gate controlled
Maximum width at base, elevation 392 feet msl - 139 feet
Maximum height, foundation to deck - 141 feet
Number of bays 10
Overall length, (abutment centerlines) 590 feet
Clear length - 500 feet
Crest elevation - 391 feet above sea level
Gate seal elevation - 389.07 feet above sea level
Top of gate in closed position - 442 feet above sea level
Deck elevation - 453 feet above sea level
Gate lip elevation at maximum opening - 436 above sea level
Control gates:
Type - Tainter
Size - 50'W x 52.9'H
Method of operation - individual electric hoists, remote and manually controlled

Maintenance closure for spillway bays - Stoplogs

Spillway design flood:
Peak discharge - 850,000 cfs
Pool elevation - 446.4 feet above sea level
Tailwater elevation - 374 feet above sea level
Gross head - 72.4 feet

Maximum flood at normal pool elevation 440
Discharge - 685,000 cfs
Tailwater elevation - 370.5 feet above sea level
Gross head - 72.4 feet above sea level

Stilling Basin
Type - Horizontal apron
Width, perpendicular to flow - 590 feet
Length, parallel to flow - 168 feet
Floor elevation - 304 feet above sea level
Height of continuous end sill - 12 feet

Powerhouse
Number of generating units 6
Spacing:
Units 1 through 5 - 90 feet
Unit 6 - 96 feet

Erection and service bay 110
Turbines:
Type - Kaplan, 6-blade
Runner diameter:
Units 1 through 3 - 280 inches
Units 4 through 6 - 300 inches
Revolutions per minute:
Units 1 through 3 - 90
Units 4 through 6 - 87.5
Generators:
Rating (nameplates):
Units 1 through 3 - 90,000 kilowatts
Units 4 through 6 - 111,000 kilowatts
Power factor - 0.95
Kilovolt ampere rating:
Units 1 through 3 - 95,00
Units 4 through 6 - 117,000
Units installed complete initially - 3
Skeleton units provided initially - 3
Total units now installed - 6
Plant rated capacity - 603,000 kilowatts
Crane capacities:
Intake (joint use with spillway) - 85 tons
Bridge - 500 tons
Draft tube gantry - 35 tons

Navigation Lock and Channels
Type - Single lift
Net clear length, lock chamber - 675 feet
Net clear width, lock chamber - 86 feet
Minimum water depth over lower sill - 16 feet
Upstream gate:
Type - Radial
Height - 25 feet
Downstream gate:
Type - Virtical Lift
Height - 91 feet
Maximum operating lock lift - 105 feet
Length of guidewalls (from face of gate):
Upstream (floating) - 746 feet
Downstream - 696 feet
Normal fill time - 11 minutes
Normal emptying time - 14 minutes

Fish Facilities
Number of fish ladders - 2
Slope:
North Shore - 1V on 10H
South Shore - 1V on 16H
Number of weirs (including orifice-control section) - 103
Overflow weirs:
Number - 97
Height - 6 feet
Orifice size:
North Shore - 18 x 18 inches
South Shore - 21 x 23 inches
Exit of ladders, invert elevation - 431 feet above sea level
Entrance of ladder, invert elevation - 332 feet above sea level
Normal fishway flow, forebay to each ladder:
North Shore - 74 cfs
South Shore - 142 cfs
Ladder, clear width:
North Shore - 16 feet
South Shore - 24 feet
Pumps for fish attraction water:
Number:
North Shore - 3
South Shore - 8
Type - Turbine
Discharge:
North Shore - 250 cfs
South Shore - 300 cfs
Fishway entrances:
North shore - 2
South shore - 3
Non-overflow - 3

Powerhouse collection system:
Number of orifice entrances - 12
Length of channel - 661 feet
Width of channel - 17.5 feet
Downstream Migrants Bypass System:
Ice-and-trash sluiceway - 1
Hydraulic capacity 2700 cfs

Hydrologic Data
(Based on streamflow data for the Snake River near Clarkston, Washington)
Drainage area - 103,200 square miles
Period of record - Oct 1915 to Sept 1972 (Discontinued in Dec 1972)
Discharges in cubic feet per second:
Instantaneous maximum of record, 29 May 1948 - 369,000
Instantaneous minimum of record, 2 Sep 1958 - 6,660
Average annual flow - 48,840
Average annual mean daily peak flow - 188,300
Extreme outside period of record:
Flood of June 1894 - 409,000
Flood of June 1894 controlled by existing projects - 295000
Standard project flood (controlled by existing projects):
Snake River below Clearwater River - 420,000
Snake River above Clearwater River - 295,000
Clearwater River above Snake River - 150,000
Spillway design flood 850,000

Contact Us

Ice Harbor Lock and Dam
2763 Monument Drive
Burbank, WA 99323
Phone: 509-547-7781

Ice Harbor Recreation

Dworshak